ECMAScript Language Specification

The ECMAScript Language Specification is the official, authoritative specification of the JavaScript programming language. ECMAScript 11 language specification was published in June 2020 and followed the ECMAScript 10 language specification.

This ECMAScript version goes beyond the previous version by specifying features like:

  • Primitive type BigInt
  • Dynamic imports: imports now return a Promise
  • The method Promise.allSettled
  • Standardised globalThis
  • The nullish coalescing operator ??
  • The optional chaining operator ?.

Our JavaScript misconceptions relate to the following sections of that specification:

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